SoftSKU: Optimizing Server Architectures for Microservice Diversity @Scale

Abstract

The variety and complexity of microservices in warehouse-scale data centers has grown precipitously over the last few years to support a growing user base and an evolving product portfolio. Despite accelerating microservice diversity, there is a strong requirement to limit diversity in underlying server hardware to maintain hardware resource fungibility, preserve procurement economies of scale, and curb qualification/test overheads. As such, there is an urgent need for strategies that enable limited server CPU architectures (a.k.a "SKUs") to provide performance and energy efficiency over diverse microservices. To this end, we first undertake a comprehensive characterization of the top seven microservices that run on the compute-optimized data center fleet at Facebook.

Our characterization reveals profound diversity in OS and I/O interaction, cache misses, memory bandwidth utilization, instruction mix, and CPU stall behavior. Whereas customizing a CPU SKU for each microservice might be beneficial, it is prohibitive. Instead, we argue for "soft SKUs", wherein we exploit coarse-grain (e.g., boot time) configuration knobs to tune the platform for a particular microservice. We develop a tool, ╬╝SKU, that automates search over a soft-SKU design space using A/B testing in production and demonstrate how it can obtain statistically significant gains (up to 7.2% and 4.5% performance improvement over stock and production servers, respectively) with no additional hardware requirements.

Publication
In proceedings of the 46th International Symposium on Computer Architecture (Acceptance rate: 62/365 = 16.9%)
Akshitha Sriraman
Akshitha Sriraman
PhD Candidate

Akshitha Sriraman is a PhD candidate in Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. Her dissertation research is on the topic of enabling hyperscale web services. Specifically, her work bridges computer architecture and software systems, demonstrating the importance of that bridge in realizing efficient hyperscale web services via solutions that span the systems stack. Her systems solutions to improve hardware efficiency have been deployed in real hyperscale data centers and currently serve billions of users, saving millions of dollars and significantly reducing the global carbon footprint. Additionally, her hardware design proposals have influenced the design of Intel’s Alder Lake (Golden Cove and future generation) CPU architectures. Akshitha has been recognized with a Facebook Fellowship, a Rackham Merit Ph.D. Fellowship, and a CIS Full-Tuition Scholarship. She was selected for the Rising Stars in EECS Workshop and the Heidelberg Laureate Forum. Her research has been recognized with an IEEE Micro Top Picks distinction and has appeared in top computer architecture and systems venues like OSDI, ISCA, ASPLOS, MICRO, and HPCA.